There are some other situations where a trump lead is either automatic or highly likely.
- Opponents have landed into an artificial suit due to bidding misunderstanding.
- The auction has been passed for penalty after a TOX. Partner of the TOXer has strong trump, he/she expects to pull trump as defender.
- Against a grand slam. This is considered a safe lead.
- When opponents have bid two suits and landed in a third.
When a part score has been X'd for penalty either outright or converted to penalty by a TO action, trumps are usually led at the first convenient opportunity. Failing to do so by opening leader usually means one of two things.
- Opening leader risks losing a trump position from his/her holding, or
- The opening leader prefers a tapping defense.